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潜孔冲击器的使用与维护
作者:金龙钎具浏览次数: 日期:2010年10月23日 11:36

  


搞要:

一.概述(General):

HD系列高风压冲击器是一种冲击凿岩工具,但他与其它凿岩工具不同的是,凿岩过程中它始终留在孔的底部,活塞直接冲击钻头。
Series HD high air-press DTH are designed as a hammer drill. They differ from other rock drills, however, through continuous operation down against the drill bit.
压缩气体经过钻杆进入冲击器,而后从钻头排出,排出的废气被用来排碴。冲击器的回转运动由回转头提供,轴推力由推进器提供,通过钎杆传递到冲击器上。
Compressed air is led to the rock drill thorough the dill tube string. Exhaust air is discharged through hole in the drill bit and used to flush clean the drill hole. Rotation is delivered from a rotation unit and feed force from the feed is transferred the DTH drill via the drill tubes.

.结构原理(Technical description):

这种潜孔冲击器是这样组成的,活塞、内缸、配气座、逆止阀和钻头附件等安装在细长的外缸内,外缸的上有装带扳手口和联接螺纹的上接头,下端装有螺纹连接的卡钎套。卡钎套主要用于向钻头传递推进力和回转运动。卡环控制钻头的轴向运动,而逆止阀是当停止供应压气时,用来妨止岩碴等杂物进入冲击器。钻进过程中,钻头被推进冲击器,并压在卡钎套上,此时活塞直接冲击钻头进行凿岩。当钻头提离孔底是,开始强吹。
The DTH dill comprise a narrow elongated tube which contains an impact piston, internal cylinder, air distributor, check valve. The real, threaded top sub is fitted with a spanner slot and coupling thread for connection to the drill tubes. The forward part, the driver check, also fitted with thread, enclose the splines-equipped bit shank and thansfers feed force as well as rotation to the drill bit. A stop ring limits axial movements of the drill bit. The purpose of the check valve is to prevent impurities from penetrating the rock drill when pressedair is shut off. During drilling, the drill bit is with drawn inside the DTH and pressed against the drive chuck. The piston strikes directly against impact surface of the shank of the bit. Air blowing occurs when the bit loses contact with the bottom of the hole.

.使用与维护(Operation and maintainence)

1、因为冲击器的接头和接头都是右旋螺纹,所以钻进工作过程中,应始终保持冲击器右回旋。
    The drive chuck and top sub are threaded into the cylinder with right-hand threads. The drill must be alway soperated with right-hand rotation.

2、开孔时,应采用最小的冲击和推进力,使钻头平稳地进入岩层。
      Start collaring with reduced throttle to the impact mechanism and feeding, let the bit work its way slightly into the rock.
3、推进力和钻具重量匹配是很重要的,推进器的推力必须随钻具重量的变化而变化。
     It is important that the feed force is adapted to the weight of the drill string. The force from the feed motor needs to be corrected during drilling, depending on the variable weight of the drill string.
4、冲击器通常采用的回转速度一般为15—25rpm,转速越快,凿速也就越快,但在坚硬岩石中,转速应减小,以便保证钻头不过分磨损。
     The normal rotation speed for DTH lies between 15—25rpmThe upper limit generally produces the best genetration rate, however, in highly abrasive rock, rpm should be in order to avoid excessive wear of the drill bit.
5、因为堵块和空穴都可能导致卡钻,因此应定期采用冲击器强吹,定期清洗孔底。
     Clogged or cave-in of the hole, can lead to a stuck drill. It is best therefore, to cleans the hole regular intervals, by carrying out air-blowing with the rock drill.
6、在接杆过程中,岩碴和各种杂质会掉进冲击器中,因此必须盖好松开的钻杆螺纹端部,确保钻杆不粘岩碴和粉尘。
     Jointing operation is the work sequence where a down-the-hole drill is most likely to experience contamination, through cutting and various kind of impurities falling down the hole. Make it a rule therefore, to always cover the open the thread end of a drill tube during joining. Make sure also that the drill tubes are free from cuttings and dirt.
7、冲击器的合理润滑永远不能忽视,否则,会加速冲击器的磨损甚至造成破坏。
     The importance of correct lubrication of the rock drill cannot be over-emphasized. In adequate lubrication accelerates wear and can ever lead to breakdown.

.常见故障排除方法(Trouble shooting):

故障Fault (一):润滑油不够或没有润滑导致过早磨损或损坏Poor or no lubrication, causing increase in wear or scoring
原因cause润滑油达不到冲击器的冲击结构Oil is not reaching the impact mechanism of the rock drill
排除方法Remedy检查润滑装置,从冲击器顶部往下注油或增大压气含油量Inspect the lubrication, top-up with oil if necessary, or increase luboil dosage

故障Fault (二):冲击结构不工作或工作不正常Impact mechanism does not operate, or works with reduced effect.
原因cause
1.气路被堵塞Supply of air turottled or blocked
2.活塞和内、外缸之间,活塞和配气座的间隙太大。Too large a clearance, between the piston and the external cylinder, or between the piston and the internal, or between the piston and the air distributor.
3.冲击器被脏物堵死Drill dogged by imparites
4.活塞或钎头尾管断裂Piston failure or foot valve failure.
排除方法Remedy
1.检查气压,检查气路是否畅通Check the air pressure. Check that the air passages up to the rock drill are open.
2.拆开冲击器,检查磨损情况,更换磨损件。Disassamble the rock drill and inspect the wear, replace worn part.
3.拆开冲击器,清洗冲击器所有内部零件Disassamble the rock drill and wash all internal components
4.拆开冲击器,更换活塞或钻头Disassamble the rock drill replace the fractured piston or sit up a new bit.

故障Fault (三):钻头和卡钎套脱落Lost drill bit and driver chuck
原因cause 冲击器工作时没有进行右旋Impact mechanism has operated without right-hand rotation.
排除方法Remedy 钩起脱落的部件,在钻进和提升时,确保右回旋。Fish up the dropped equipment with a fishing tool. Remember to always use right-hand rotation, both when drilling and when lifting the drill string.

所属类别: 专业知识

该资讯的关键词为:潜孔冲击器的使用与维护  Operation and Maintainence Guidelines  潜孔钻头,button bits